A review of Charlie Weingroff, his course and the SFMA

Purpose: To provide a very selective review of Charlie Weingroff’s course and how it actually fits with a neurocentric view of pain and function.

Audience: Therapists and strength coaches.  Patients who  have trouble sleeping.

Related Links

1. Jeff Cubos discusses SFMA, DNS and Lorimer Moseley and they inform his practice style

2. My and Bret Contreras’ minor critical analysis of the Joint by Joint Approach



I took 2 days out of Charlie Weingroff’s course, Training = Rehab, Rehab = Training course here in Toronto from MSK-Plus.  MSK-Plus is a  continuing education company run by Dr. Glen Harris.  Dr. Harris has brought in a lot of great educators over the years and this course was not an exception.

WARNING: I missed the first highly practical day of this course so don’t see this review as some massive summary.  This review is not meant to be extensive or an advertorial.  Ideally, it will review some of the main points of Dr. Weingroff’s teaching.  Please view this summary as my interpretation.  Much of the language I use will be in my vernacular and should not be attributed to Dr. Weingroff or those that have influenced the content of the course (Gray Cook with the FMS and SFMA and Dynamic Neuromuscular Stabilization).

What is in this long review? So long that it needs a table of contents!

  1. A bullet point summary of my interpretation of the key points of Dr. Weingroff’s approach to treating injuries and pain
  2. Review of how the Selective Functional Movement Assessment (SFMA) works
  3. A brief review of a case study
  4. My thoughts
  5. Constructive criticism and reservations of the approach (hurdles for my brain)
  6. Comments on the Educational Effectiveness
  7. Final Thoughts


Summary of the key points

Brief explanation of the SFMA

The SFMA is seven screening tests.  Each test only tells you if the patient can perform the movement or not and whether they have pain or not.  It does not tell you where a problem is.  Thus, if you think there is a problem you have to follow up with more tests.  After performing a test you have four possible results:

FN: Functional and no pain (Yaaa, they did it according to certain standards with no pain)

FP: Functional and painful: they did it but it hurt

DN: Dysfunctional and no pain:  They could not do the movement but it did not hurt

DP: Dysfunctional and painful: They could not do it and it hurt

The seven movements (a pdf is here SFMA Score Sheets) that you have patients do are:

1. Multiple Segment Flexion (MSF)  aka:

2. Multiple Segment Extension (MSE)

3. Multiple Segment Rotation (MSR)

4. Cervical Pattern (Flexion, Extension, Rotation separately)

5. Single Leg Stance

6. Upper Extremity Patterns (Hand behind back and Hand behind head)

7. Deep Overhead Squat

with two provocation tests (cross body shoulder adduction and a shoulder impingement test)

After you run the patient through these tests and categorize each into one of the four categories the  SFMA suggests that you ignore the painful movement for a bit.  You don’t actually ignore it though.  You get to use it as a comparable sign or as part of your treatment audit.  It was also suggested that your local treatment techniques can go after the painful area but this should not be an initial priority.

The initial priority is the DN (dysfunctional and non-painful).  This is your safe window into treatment.  Pain is all about the perception of threat.  We don’t want to scare that skitterish pain rabbit.  We’re gonna cook it but it doesn’t have to know that yet.

If you have multiple DNs.  You choose the one to work on based on the following hierarchy:

-address cervical spine dysfunction

- address asymmetries


Brief Summary of the Case Study

The patient was a male sprinter with a recent history of right achilles tendon pain.  MSF was Functional but Painful (FP) whereas Multisegment Extension appeared dysfunctional and non painful.   There was some pain in the right AC joint during the provocative maneouvers although the range of motion of that region was greater than the other shoulder region as tested with the upper extremity movement tests.  Single leg stance was FN and the deep squat was painful and dysfunctional (DP).  I don’t remember exactly what happened with the cervical testing (I did not think I was writing this article so I didn’t take notes).  Regardless, Dr. Weingroff focused on the multisegment extension test (dysfunctional and non-painful) as it appeared to be limited.  Two breakout tests were performed:

1. Standing multisegment extension with one hip flexed

2. Prone lying spine extension coupled with rotation

These tests showed two things.  A restriction in hip extension in the right leg during the first test and pain in the lumbar region when passive extension was coupled with rotation.  Ankle dorsiflexion (CKC) was also assessed and found wanting on the right.

This prompted two more tests.  Prone leg extension performed actively and passively.  This test suggested that the patient had full passive hip extension (i.e. not a joint problem) but less hip extension when actively performed by the musculature (i.e. suggested to be a motor control problem).

And somewhere in this assessment Charlie did a Mulligan technique directed at the painful right shoulder.  The technique involved a SNAG of C6 coupled with right shoulder crossbody adduction.  The pain was decreased with this Mobilization with Movement.  Thank you Brian Mulligan.  I was happy to hear that the explanation for this pain modulation put the brain and nervous system as the modulating influence rather than some mechanical explanation at the level of the joint.  I don’t know how this fits in with the SFMA hierarchy. Sorry.

The treatment of the Non-Painful Dysfunction (DN)

Charlie suggested the primary dysfunction was a lack of hip extension due to a motor control dysfunction.  Treatment consisted of the patient starting in a lunge pattern, pushing both hands into their front knee, squeezing their Gluteus Maximus and then doing some DNS based stuff.  Charlie worked on having the patient change the position of their ribcage via their lumbar spine.  I believe this involved activating the obliques to pull down on the ribcage and this would lead to a decrease in lordosis.  I assume this was coupled with the glut max leading to a posterior pelvic tilt which would again decrease lordosis.  Charlie did more than this which was based on DNS “joint centration” through the spine, hips and shoulders.  The patient was encouraged to remain tall, slightly tuck the chin and breath through the diaphragm.  I am not doing this justice so judge me not Charlie.  Several repetitions of this occurred and then it was repeated with the lunge being directed 45 degrees laterally.

The comparable sign

The patient was then reassessed.  The painful movement (MSF and prone extension with rotation) was reassessed as was the shoulder movement.  Pain was reported to be less or gone and changes in shoulder ROM were noted.   I didn’t call the patient to see how they are today and I can’t time travel so I don’t know what they are like three weeks from now.

The goal is immediate change in symptoms.  Dr. Weingroff (remember he is a powerlifter) calls this “one shot, one kill”.  As a gentler man I’d call it kissing the right girl.  Which is the ultimate point of the approach (and certainly up for debate).  It assumes we can find the most important “dysfunction” that is driving force behind the continuing pain.

My thoughts on the approach

 I was quite surprised by the course and how the SFMA was used.  My concern with the SFMA in the past was that it was a castrophizing monster that finds imperfections in movement (which I view as natural and healthy variability) which in turn creates “work” for the therapist.  But, it does not have to be this way.  The SFMA is not the catastrophising monster only the therapists who choose to abuse it. 

My concerns in the past revolved around the idea that people need to have certain fundamental movement abilities.  I still don’t think that we can be so absolute about things.  If your patient’s hobbies are reading books and going for walks do they really need to be able to reach behind their back to solve their persistent pain?  No one at this course was suggesting this.  This to me indicates that some movement ability is task and population specific.  This I can get behind.

For persistent pain I think the SFMA can be used as a framework.  It shows you which movements are painful and which are not painful but their movement may not be “ideal”.  You then get that patient moving in that non-painful but less than ideal movement (i.e the DN).  You help them increase their ability during this movement without creating any pain.  This can empower them, build capacity and can be part of a graded motor activity program.  It might have nothing to do with retraining a motor program or improving movement quality and more to do with decreasing fear, downregulating threat, increasing confidence and just helping the brain modulate pain.  This is an example where the system can be effective but maybe not for the reasons we think.

Where this is less useful in persistent pain is that cranked up patient with a large  central component where almost all movements hurt.  Obviously we can’t just treat the nonpainful movements because there aren’t any.  I’m also a little hesistant about not doing any movements that cause pain.  I think it is OK for patients to have some pain when they move. This is why educate about pain neuroscience. We can’t always let pain be our guide.  Pushing the edge of pain can help increase the patients threshold for pain.  They learn that pain does not equal injury and this can be empowering as well.

Constructive criticism and reservations of the approach (hurdles for my brain)

 - the concept behind the SFMA is that there is an ideal way to move that is consistent across all individuals.  This is still debatable to me.  I think this is patient and context specific.  Certain individuals certainly do need certain movements but I have reservations that this must be applied to every human.

- asymmetries are considered dysfunctional - again, very debatable.  A lot of research on both sides and again may be context and individual specific.  I suppose you have to draw a line in the sand and just pick a side.  Or straddle!

- the assessments and breakout assessments are subjected to the same biomechanical questions and doubts of all assessments tests.  For example, if you are testing the rotation of the spine it is assumed that if you flex your lower back this will stop rotation in the lower spine and isolate it to the thorax.  This has been investigated and it does not look to be true.  While there is a little less lumbar rotation than neutral it is not starkly different.  Caveat - this is being a bit nitpicky.

- the concept of treating the non-painful dysfunction which in turn leads to less pain in the painful movement can be tested.  Take two groups with “x” pain.  In both of those groups find a non-painful dysfunction.  In one of the groups treat this non-painful dysfunction.  In the other group find a non-painful but functional movement pattern.  Now train the crap out of that non-dysfunction and non-painful pattern. Both groups should also be told that you are treating a non-painful dysfunction. Compare for changes in pain after the intervention on the painful comparable sign (FP or DP).  This simple experiment lets us know if there is something special about the “non-painful dysfunction” or if it is just the act of moving painfree, receiving attention, correction, co-ercion, interaction etc.  You can do this study in the shortterm (e.g. after one session) or over the long term. 


Comments on the Educational Effectiveness

 This is more of a comment for every single CE course out there (myself included when I give brief lectures).  I think in general courses need to give a little more material than just power point lectures.  I don’t think that anyone that ever takes a course should have to take notes.  The courseware that comes with the course should be comprehensive and then some.  You should never feel that you have forgotten something from a course.  You should have material that you can reference years later.  Again, hats off to the book Movement, which would serve as this reference material if you took the SFMA or FMS courses.

Now the positive.  Charlie was great.  He really took the time to answer (not just snowball) peoples questions.  I also felt like he genuinely tried to make the course very practical for everyone.  MSK-Plus also had extra senior clinicians (Chris Nentarz and Joe Heiler) to help with the participants.


 Final Thoughts

Charlie stressed that the SFMA is a system.  It does not tell you exactly how to treat but tries to give a comprehensive means of analyzing movement.  You can then use your particular skills to treat in the manner you see fit.  I like to think that practice using the best available evidence, founded in scientific plausibility and consistent with what we think we know about the science of pain.  With only a few reservations, I felt that I can use the SFMA and still be true to my treatment approach.  The goal of Charlie’s course was not to get you to practice just like Charlie.  It seemed to be suggesting a systematic approach to help you practice like a better version of what you might be doing now.






  1. Great review Greg! I took this course from Charlie in April, and was invited to assist for the course you took since I’m from Buffalo, NY but I was teaching a course in London, ON at the time. I really enjoyed it as well, but I had already taken FMS and the SFMA so I know the framework. When I took the SFMA the instructors always pointed out never to insult the patient, make fun of them, or highlight how poor a movement is, you just grade it and test them for the next movement. I think any system, even simple ROM testing can be used to promote catastrophization. The clinician makes the difference.

    Charlie and I have gone back and forth via email and facebook regarding SFMA use in different populations. He says we have different starting points, but treat similarly. Our differences as he sees it is that he does look at the SFMA in all individuals, versus I use it in it’s entirety only for very active individuals. My sedentary office workers with headaches or some lower quarter issue may just get a 1/2 or 3/4 SFMA depending on how far I want to look. I think the more experienced a clinician you are, the better you can use it to look for the DNs. From your review, I would say that if you used it, you would think similarly instead of grouping everyone into the top tier 7 movements.

    The FMS group does have a pool of data on normal individuals across the lifespan performing these movements, and Gray stated there should be very little variation unless someone has a severe condition.

    Gray, as part of his IFOMPT keynote stated that in treating the distal most DNs, you are much less likely to flareup a patient’s current local condition. I think that is true, but may lead to unnecessary treatment in sedentary populations. The beauty of the system is that it breaks down what many clinicians think of as complex. By making it a true or false, the reliability is there (an unpublished SFMA study showed over 300 raters to grade all the movements correctly except 1 rater, who was considered an outlier), it’s the validity that I’m sure you’re worried the most about.

    Either way, great review! Wish I could’ve met you in person! You’re pretty close so I’m sure we’ll cross paths soon enough. Maybe we could find out what DNS is all about and be skeptical about it.

    • Greg Lehman says:

      Thanks Erson,

      Yup, validity is what I’m most worried about. Surprisingly, I actually use something like the SFMA with chronic pain patients and have done this for a few years (although, to be fair I haven’t followed the system). But I think I could probably use the SFMA as designed with persistent pain patients. To me, the DN gives you a window to get the patient moving and become confident in movement. However, I also like the idea of taking a Sahrmann approach (minus her explanations) and find a painful movement and figure out a way to get the patient moving without pain…thus I am treating the FP or NP. I find this great with patients. They have a painful and wonky movements and we figure out ways that they can move pain free. Seems like a no brainer. But I am not sure how this fits in with the SFMA. It doesn’t seem to be textbook. Thoughts?


      • Greg,

        I also use it with some chronic pain/central sensitization patients, because treating distal DNs and promoting pain free movement makes graded exposure to movement and function easier, thus less of a threat. I do not use most of the breakouts, because they are just tests we may have been using as clinicians anyway.

        In terms of how it fits in with the system, because it does not tell you how to treat (but does suggest motor control or tissue extensibility/joint) issues, you are free to choose how you address the dysfunctions you find. It streamlines your assessment and you may find yourself working on something you otherwise would have not, that’s it. It is very well thought out and algorhythmic, allowing for classfication, which normally helps outcomes.

  2. Awesome Greg! I enjoyed this review very much and it answered some things that I wondered about SFMA. Thanks for taking the time to write it up.

  3. Jeff Cubos says:

    Hey Greg.

    Just thought I’d add to this discussion with my experiences. Rather than describing it here, I’ll use a previous blog post of mine. Please do remember that this may not reflect how I currently practice today (as it’s an old post) but the framework is still somewhat accurate.


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